1. Understanding CME Drill Rig Model Numbers

    February 25, 2016

    CME Drill Rig ModelsCME drill rigs are popular brand name drills used by numerous geotechnical and environmental drillers. For those looking to get started in the industry, selecting the appropriate model for your drilling business may appear to be a daunting task due to the variety of model numbers, but it doesn’t have to be. Manufacturers strive to maintain consistency when selecting model names and their ultimate goal in doing so is to help decipher differences between drill rigs. Having been a drill rig manufacturer since 1962, CME has developed a handful of models that reflect size, power and undercarriage type. Once you learn CME’s naming structure the variances between model numbers become extremely helpful in understanding the exact type of drill rig you are purchasing.

    Original CME Drill Rig Models

    To begin to really understand the various CME drill rig models on the market today, it is imperative to start with some of the original CME model s – CME 45, CME 55 and CME 75. From there the easiest way to recognize the different drill rigs is to understand their numerical value increases in accordance with the size of the drill. Therefore, the CME 45 is the smallest drill, the CME 55 is the mid-sized drill, and the CME 75 is the larger drill in the CME family. CME also makes a CME 85 and CME 95 which are the grandiose models. Due to their size, these are not as common but still worth mentioning. Depending on buyer’s needs all of these original units are available in truck, track or skid mount.

    Rubber Tired CME ATV Drills

    CME also develops drill rigs with ATV rubber tires to accommodate customers seeking both speed and traction.  To distinguish these ATV drills from the original models, CME adds a trailing “0” to their model number. Examples include the CME 550 and CME 750. Furthermore, adding an “X” to the model indicates the unit has been updated and modernized. Modernized CME ATV drills like the CME 550X have enhanced drive systems which accommodates larger dual rear tires which reduces wearing.

    High Torque Drills from CME

    Customers in search of more rotation and power want to be on the lookout for CME drills with the two letter abbreviation “HT” which represents high torque.  High torque drills from CME have an enhanced drive line allowing operators to drill deeper and utilize larger augers. One of the most common drills to include this feature is the CME 75HT.

    Feed Systems on CME Drills Explained

    Another difference between CME drill rig model numbers is the use of “B” and “C” on CME 45 drill rigs which indicates the style of feed system. The CME 45B model features a feed system that is fixed in its vertical position. This can be viewed as a constraint since the height restricts the units overall clearance. The CME 45C was designed with a pivoting feed system allowing the entire system to decline to a horizontal position which many find beneficial for ease of transportation. One other benefit of the pivoting feed system is the capability to drill on an angle up to 45-degrees. Regardless of which feed system you choose you will have the ability to handle tools in and out, directly from the tower. Neither feed system is “better” than the other, but each has different uses and purposes to accommodate the variety of drilling obstacles encountered.

    Next time you’re browsing for a new or used CME drill rig for sale or rent you will be able to understand exactly what model, size and style drill rig you are looking for. As your trusted drill rig supplier, please give us a call at 630.365.1649 for more information on CME drill rigs. We are happy to discuss the models and help determine which drill rig is best suited for your needs.



  2. Changes to Pay Attention to in 2016

    February 5, 2016

    2016 Laws Expected to Affect Customers2016 marks a big year of change for laws that have potential to affect many of our drill rig and crawler carrier customers. New laws have gone into effect, and some previous laws are set to be enforced by the end of the year. As your trusted equipment supplier we analyzed these changes to determine how they could affect you. We want our customers to be fully informed so they can continue to make the best decisions and equipment purchases for their growing business.

    Section 179 – Bonus Depreciation

    First and foremost, are you aware of the latest changes to Section 179 tax deductions for equipment purchases? While Section 179 has been available in the past, the rules have changed. This year both the House and Senate passed “Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015” which permanently increased Section 179 tax deduction limits to $500,000, and extended 50% bonus depreciation through 2019. Prior to this law taking place, Section 179 was temporarily approved on an annual basis. The temporary re-approvals were nice, but they didn’t provide equipment buyers adequate time to complete equipment purchase transactions in time to qualify for the deduction. Therefore, the permanency of Section 179 is ideal for our drill rig and crawler carrier customers seeking to purchase equipment now and in the years to come. The new law gives buyers the time they need to plan and forecast equipment needs, shop for the right equipment, and feel confident the Section 179 tax deduction is going to be there for them.

    Oil Export Ban Lifted

    Forty years later, the US ban on oil exports has been lifted! This is exciting for our customers within the oil and gas and pipeline industries.  It is expected that this lifted ban will expedite a higher demand for the US to grow our oil transport infrastructure, and in return open up thousands of new job opportunities for industry members. Keep in mind environmental protection is still of utmost importance while we grow the US infrastructure so it is imperative for contractors to remain conscious of environmentally friendly practices while on jobsites. Taking action by utilizing heavy equipment like crawler carriers which are known for leaving behind some of the smallest environmental footprint is one way you can help protect the ecosystem.

    Tier 4 Emissions Standards

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced Tier 4 engine emission standards back in 2004, and has allowed a phase-in period for manufacturer compliance which is largely coming to an end in 2016. The purpose of the Tier 4 engine standards by the EPA is to reduce engine emissions in an effort to comply with stricter Clean Air Act guidelines. What you need to know as an equipment consumer is equipment already utilizing Tier 4 engines also comes with a heftier price tag. Additionally, Tier 4 engines may use different fuel which increases the amount of maintenance required to uphold the equipment. To date, many equipment manufacturers have already conformed to the new Tier 4 engine standards leaving it very difficult to come across Tier 3 equipment still in production.  However, there are some manufacturers like Terramac® who are still offer offering Tier 3 models through the remainder of 2016. Therefore, if you are looking to add to your equipment fleet, 2016 may be good year to do so in order to take advantage of Tier 3 options that will soon be no longer be available.

    *This is a brief overview of the laws that have potential to affect our customers this year. For more information regarding the details of these laws, please contact your local government agency and tax advisers.

    Sources:

    1. The Section 179 Deduction. (2016, January 1). Retrieved from http://www.section179.org/
    2. Speaker Ryan Press Office. (2015, December 15). Lifting the Oil Export Ban: By the Numbers. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from http://www.speaker.gov/general/lifting-oil-export-ban-numbers
    3. Associated Equipment Distributors. (n.d). Clean Diesel Technology For Off-Road Engines and Equipment: Tier 4 and More. Retrieved from http://www.aem.org/PDF/DTF_Tier4WP_FIN.pdf


  3. Auger Drills & Direct Push Inventory on the Move

    December 9, 2015

    Change is in motion for our geotechnical and environmental drilling equipment inventory so be sure to stay in the loop by following us on social media, and take advantage of equipment opportunities as they are presented.

    In the last few weeks Rig Source has purchased a variety of auger drilling rigs as well as direct push units to support customers looking for inexpensive drilling rig options or start up rigs. Our talented buyers have years of experience finding quality used drill rigs to fit our customers varying budgets. We can easily spot the value in these used drills, and provide maintenance options with reasonable costs to bring used drills to “like new” condition. Rig Source values our customer’s time, and are honored that so many around the world have trusted us for over a decade to buy, restore and rebuild their auger drilling rigs and direct push units.

    With the current geotechnical and environmental market in full swing, our inventory of Geoprobe’s, CME’s and Diedrich drills have been moving at a rapid pace. For your convenience, we’ve begun posting equipment notifications on Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin and Google +, but always recommend giving our team a call to discuss the type of drilling rigs you’re in search of.

    Sample Auger Drill Rig & Direct Push Projects
    CME 45 Drill Rig for Sale

    CME 45 Drill Rig

    Geoprobe 66DT for Sale by Rig Source

    Geoprobe 66DT


    Auger Drill Rig & Direct Push Drills Available NOW

    Diedrich D-50 Drill Rigs for Sale

    Diedrich D-50 Drill Rig

    CME 550X Drilling Rig for Sale

    CME 550X Drill Rig

    Geoprobe 6610DT for Sale by Rig Source

    Geoprobe 6610DT

    Geoprobe 6620DT for Sale by Rig Source

    Geoprobe 6620DT

     

    To view our complete listings or peruse additional auger drills and direct push units, please visit our geotechnical and environmental drill rig showroom. Need a price? Call 630.365.1649 and ask to speak with the sales representative in your area.



  4. Crawler Carrier Uses Broken Down by Region & State Continued – Part 3

    October 30, 2015

    Welcome back to part three of our series covering the use of crawler carriers across various regions of the US. Click on the links provided to catch up on the Western Regions or Mid Regions of the US. Otherwise, read on and enjoy learning about crawler carrier usage along the Eastern regions of the US.

    Travel the Eastern Regions of the US on Tracks

    New England Region – Encompassing the states of Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island & Vermont.

    • New England is one of the most historic regions of United States, and with that comes an older infrastructure requiring a great deal of maintenance and repair. Crawler carriers benefit the New England region by providing the local industries with reliable equipment capable of adapting to the various seasons and infrastructure needs such as pipeline repair, environmental restoration, and utility maintenance. The most commonly sought after crawler carrier attachments for this region are standard dump beds, tac welders, water tanks, pipe heating units and more.

    Mid-Atlantic Region – Encompassing the states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New Jersey & New York.

    • The Mid-Atlantic Region is truly the heart of pipeline work for the Unites States because it contains the Marcellus and Bakken Shales. The Marcellus Shale is the largest source of natural gas in the United States so it is no wonder that crawler carrier usage is at its highest rate for the country in this region. Crawler carriers are used in every step of the pipeline process; beginning with utility locating and finishing up with land restoration. Top attachments used for crawler carriers across the entire Mid-Atlantic Region include, vacuum excavators, water tanks, cranes, tac welders, personnel carriers, compressors, hydroseeders, bark blowers and straw blowers.

    South-Atlantic Region – Encompassing the states of Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina & South Carolina.

    • The South-Atlantic Region is a hot spot for a multitude of industries, and crawler carriers are used routinely due to their versatility across a wide variety of terrain conditions. This region includes the Appalachian Mountains and is also home of the Coastal Plaines. The Proximity to the Mid-Atlantic Region means pipelines are still among the top local industries to depend on crawler carriers, but the units are also being used for earth moving and excavation projects which require attachments such as hydroseeders, bark blowers, straw blowers and rock beds. As you travel into Virginia, the use of crawler carriers is also increasing for the utility market.

    Southeast Region – Encompassing the states of Georgia & Florida.

    • Surrounded largely by water from both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, the Southeast Region has found crawler carrier use a key tool for shoreline restoration as well as land reclamation. This is a tourist region so using low impact equipment like carriers that have low ground pressure assist both Georgia and Florida in preserving their environments for visitors. Pipeline projects such as the Sabal Trail Transmission are also expected to increased crawler carrier usage once the project commences in 2016. The last prominent use of crawler carriers for mention in the Southeast Region has been in utilities. Digger derricks and boom lift attachments are being mounted to the rear of crawler carriers more and more which is allowing easier accessibility to utility pole installation sites.
    Regional Wrap Up

    Crawler carrier usage among all regions in the United States has been on a tremendous upward growth pattern in recent years as more and more as technological advancements to crawler carriers have been introduced. Each new advancement has made work in these trade industries that much easier and safer than ever before. The adaptability of crawler carriers to hold various specialty attachments, and interchange them with ease also enhances productivity for employers by providing their workers with all the tools necessary, even in remote locations to continue working. There isn’t an industry out there that couldn’t benefit from crawler carriers, and as future uses come about and new attachments are developed – you can count on Rig Source to keep you informed and your fleet stocked!

    *Common Crawler Carrier Attachments Mentioned Throughout the Series: Standard Dump/Flat Bed, Dust Suppression Spray Boom, Fuel Tank, Rock Bed, Tac Welder, Personnel Carrier, Pipe Heating Unit, Compressor, Bark Blower, Hydroseeder, Water Tank, Knuckle Boom Crane, Geotechnical Drills and Straw Blowers.



  5. Gear Up Drillers – The 2015 NDA Convention Is Here

    September 10, 2015

    Pack your bags for this year’s NDA Convention, and stay on the forefront of geotechnical, environmental & mineral exploration drilling methodology and technology.

    2015 NDA Convention

    2015 NDA Convention – September 17-18

    The National Drilling Association Convention is an annual event hosted by the NDA and sponsored by its members and affiliates of the drilling industry. This convention has been noted for providing excellent networking opportunities within the industry, and provides ample educational opportunities for businesses to learn how to best service their customers. As long time members of the NDA, Rig Source continues to support their annual convention, and highly recommends those in the industry take part. Location: Turf Valley, Ellicott City, MD.

    Rig Source’s Contribution

    As a drill rig sales, rental and service center for the geotechnical and environmental drilling industries, Rig Source will be exhibiting at the NDA Convention, and would love to see you at our booth. If you’re an existing customer, stop by and share your latest drilling story with us. We enjoy hearing about the work our drilling rigs have mastered since leaving our shop, and how they have benefitted you as a driller. Additionally, if you’re new to the industry, be sure to drop in and introduce yourself. We welcome all new industry members and look forward to sharing our services with you. During the convention, owners, Mike & Lisa Crimaldi will be available to discuss drilling rig options with you, and offer creative equipment solutions for your specific drilling projects.

    Special Recognition

    Rig Source would also like to make special mention that two of our long time customers, Chuck Valenta of Terracon and Dan Dunn of Major Drilling America, Inc. will be conducting a transformative safety panel discussion during the convention. Topics will include accidents, safety and solutions to help prevent drilling related accidents from occurring. These two gentlemen are experts in the geotechnical and environmental drilling industry so you won’t want to miss out on the opportunity to gather some of their tricks of the trade.

    For more information on Rig Source or our NDA Convention Sponsorship, please give us a call at 630.365.1649.

     



  6. Crawler Carrier Uses Broken Down by Region & State Continued – Part 2

    August 17, 2015

    This is part two of a three part series that takes a look at crawler carrier usage across the different regions of the US. Click on the link to catch up on our previous post which covered crawler carriers in the Western regions of the US.

    Travel the Mid Regions of the US on Tracks

    The Great Plains Region – Encompassing the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas, Missouri, Michigan, Indiana, Kentucky & Tennessee.

    • Within this region, the three states of North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska which hold the Bakken Shale have extremely high crawler carrier usage rates. These states are expanding rapidly in the oil and gas market, and crawler carriers have been the all-in-one piece of heavy equipment capable of adapting to the multitude of jobs required for pipeline work. The remaining Midwestern states have also found various uses for crawler carrier’s rubber tracked technology, but among a broader group of industries, and are used more so for niche jobs when inclement weather hinders work sites. Industries have included mine reclamation, utility, general construction and excavation as well as pipeline work. Due to the variety of industry demands, this region uses one of the widest arrays of specialized crawler carrier attachments such as tac welders, personnel carriers, water tanks, cranes, spray booms, hydroseeders and standard dump beds.

    Southern Plains – Encompassing the states of Oklahoma & Kansas.

    • This region is best known as “Tornado Alley,” and has seasonal climates which make predicting and planning for outdoor work a struggle. Pipeline work is in full force in the Southern Plaines and therefore much like the Western regions becomes the most prevalent industry for crawler carrier use. Rubber track technology allows carriers to continue working even when the terrain is not in its best condition. Pipeline attachment features used in this area include welders, personnel carriers, and even standard dumps. While pipeline is the primary usage, states such as Kansas have found crawler carriers useful for the utility market for the installation of utility poles.

    Gulf Coast Region – Encompassing the states of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana & Texas.

    • Swampy, humid and wet conditions frequently noticed in the Gulf Coast region require the use of crawler carriers on a regular basis. This is a primary region for the Unites States oil and gas extraction so pipeline distribution is a major focus. Among the states included in the Gulf there is a high volume of crawler carriers being used for pipeline installation and maintenance as well as services assisting pipeline work such as potholing with track mounted vacuum excavators.

    For more information on crawler carriers in the Mid Regions of the US, give Rig Source a call today at 630.365.1649. Otherwise, stay tuned and follow the Rig Source news feed for part three, crawler carriers in the Eastern Region.



  7. Crawler Carrier Uses Broken Down by Region & State

    July 27, 2015

    Crawler carriers are making an impact among numerous industries across the United States, and their efficacy is being unraveled daily. Their impacts along with increased market exposure highlighting the benefits and value associated with crawler carriers are triggering increased popularity and demand at a fast pace. To top off the craze, new technological advancements in crawler carriers, and the introduction of a North American made unit – The Terramac® RT9, only increase the hype.

    As a dealer for top brand name Terramac® crawler carriers, and a well reputed used sales, rental and service provider of all brand name crawler carriers such as Morooka, IHI and Komatsu, we’ve analyzed our own crawler carrier sales and rental usage to give you a breakdown on exactly which industries are gaining the most from crawler carriers and sorted the data by region to demonstrate how various regions of the US differ with their crawler carrier use. Follow us in a three part journey as we travel the US on Tracks!

    Travel the Western Regions of the US on Tracks

    Northwest Region – Encompassing the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah & Colorado.

    • The Northwest region is often divided in two sub regions due to the Cascade Mountain Range. Within this division, it is noted that the far west states of Washington and Oregon find crawler carrier use a popular choice for dealing with the mountainous and often times wet terrain. This area is a hotspot for growing oil and gas pipelines since it is in close proximity to Canadian Shales as well as the Bakken. On the East side of the Cascades, pipeline work also plays a hefty role in crawler carrier usage, but crawler carriers are also being used frequently for mine reclamation and tailings pond maintenance. Common crawler carrier attachments found in the Northwest region include convertible dump/flat beds, personnel carriers, tac welders and dust suppression spray booms. Other industry uses in this region have included damn restoration and geotechnical drilling.

    Southwest Region – Encompassing the states of California, Nevada, Arizona & New Mexico.

    • States in this region are recognized for high copper production, and have both active and residual mines to show for it. Similar to the Northwest region, Mine Reclamation is in its prime as new environmental laws go into effect to protect the environment, and with that comes the increase demand for crawler carriers. Among the Southwest region, crawler carriers utilized for dust suppression on tailings ponds have taken the lead for usage in the region. California has also seen an increase of crawler carrier usage for exploration drilling, and due to the sandy conditions of the desert in this region they have become attractive to those in the utility market for their unstoppable rubber tracked technology. Common attachments found in the utility market include digger derricks, aerial devices and fifth wheel hitches in addition to the standard flat and dump beds.

    Island Region – Encompassing the state of Hawaii

    • The only state not attached to continental North America, Hawaii has less frequent crawler carrier use than the other states, but is a likely candidate for land excavation and reclamation, utilities and shoreline restoration. Hawaii is home to some of the world’s best beaches, varying altitudes and lavish rainforests. The use of rubber tracked equipment is ideal for sensitive terrain such as this to minimize environmental damage.

    That wraps up crawler carrier usage in the Western regions of the US so stay tuned and follow Rig Source’s news feed for the remaining Mid region and Eastern region updates.



  8. Rig Source Scheduled to Attend South Atlantic Jubilee

    July 14, 2015

    Logo for South Atlantic Jubilee Water Well ConventionJoin us in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina – July 25-27, 2015.

    This year marks the 60th anniversary for the Jubilee Water Well Convention. This convention focuses on informing and educating professionals in the groundwater industry on state-of-the-art products and services as well as innovative drilling and installation techniques. Attendees are requested to appear to network, share and experience all the offerings the South Atlantic Jubilee provides.

    Rig Source Booth Information for Jubilee Convention

    As your first choice for drill rig sales, rental and service, Rig Source is proud to be exhibiting at booth #825 inside the Myrtle Beach Convention Center. Rig Source has been supporting the South Atlantic Jubilee for years, and is excited to return again this month to build upon their ever increasing network. Whether you’ve seen them before or simply heard about them through the grapevine, stop by to visit with their South Atlantic Regional Sales Representative, Jesse Whittaker and Director of Sales, Matt Slater. Both team members will be available throughout the event for discussing reliable and affordable drill rig options, and will also educate attendees on new drill rig mounting options available to customers, such as Terramac® crawler carriers.

    As the Jubilee Convention draws near, it is encouraged you to register today to guarantee your badge. This is a family friendly event as well so do buy extras, and bring the kids by Rig Source’s  booth for a youth sized hard hat give-a-way! Rig Source is excited to see you at the convention, and looks forward to promoting expansion in the water well industry along with you in just a few short weeks.

    If you have any questions regarding Rig Source’s exhibit at the South Atlantic Jubilee, please call 630.365.1649 to discuss.



  9. Smart Business Tactics Builds Strong Company

    July 8, 2015

    When Sherri Meiklejohn, owner of Authentic Drilling in Colorado started out in the drilling industry eleven years ago, she never would have thought she’d one day be starting her own drilling company. According to the National Women’s Business Council, woman owned drilling businesses are categorized under the construction industry, and are recognized for making up less than 8% of women owned businesses. With few women choosing to head up professional drilling service companies it sparked my interest to ask Sherri exactly how she got her start, and what led her to where she is today.

    CME Drill Rig Working in Colorado - Drilling Industry

    In a recent Q & A session, I was given the opportunity to ask Sherri many of questions looming in my mind about her new business, and below are her direct responses.
    • As a woman, what made you decide to first get involved in the drilling industry? 

    Back in 2004, I was approached by a Canadian seismic drilling company who wanted to expand operations into the United States.  As my youngest child was starting kindergarten, it was good timing to go back to work.  As with many small companies, one person must perform a wide variety of job duties.  My duties grew from start-up setup, to accounting and field operations and I worked my way up to be the Director, US Operations. In 2008 I expanded my technical knowledge in the geotechnical, environmental and exploration drilling field which remains my business’ target market. 

    • When did you decide you wanted to start your own drilling company?

    I had lightly considered starting my own company in the past but as I have limited experience operating levers, I was uncomfortable with investing my savings in others hands. I finally came up with the solution, and it was to only hire senior drillers, pay them well and provide them with an incentive/accountability program by giving them a 25% net drilling profits bonus pool contingent on continued employment.

    • How does being a woman owned and operated company affect your business?  

    It is not any different than any other company.  Every company has to prove their value to their clients and Authentic Drilling plans to do just that.

    • You just purchased 2 CME drill rigs from Rig Source – What made CME the brand of choice? 

    CME is a solid choice and is well known by our clients and drillers.  Parts are readily available and they are very reliable drill rigs.

    • How many units do you currently have in your fleet? 

    We currently have three drill rigs:  CME-75 truck, CME-550X and CME 55/300.  We intend to purchase a CME-750X drill rig later this summer from Rig Source as well.

    • What made you decide to choose Rig Source for your drill rig needs?

    Buying from Rig Source removes a lot of the unknown factors in purchasing a pre-owned drill rig.  When the rig arrives, it is already painted in our company colors and other than tooling up the rig and giving the rig a once over, you can start your revenue flowing right away.

    • What areas will Authentic Drilling service?

    The CME 550X is drilling in the mountains today!  Most of our work will be in Colorado and surrounding states, however, we will drill anywhere west of the Mississippi.

    As Authentic Drilling’s primary drill rig supplier, I want to thank Sherri for sharing her story with us and congratulate her new start with Authentic Drilling. Her story goes to show that smart business tactics really do help establish and build strong companies.

    If you are in the need of a used drill rig, give Rig Source a call today at 630.365.1649.



  10. Rent Crawler Carriers Before You Buy

    June 4, 2015
    One more way we ensure customer satisfaction!

    Wouldn’t it be great if you could test a rubber tracked carrier before you determined if it was the right piece of equipment for you? We provide you the option to rent all of our name brand carriers, including Terramac®, Morooka and IHI before you purchase. This opportunity is available on new and used carrier units as well as crawler carriers with customized attachment features. Our flexible rental options are intended to accommodate your needs so learn what’s available and reap the benefits today!

     

    Benefits Of Renting A Carrier Before Purchasing

    As your one stop shop for crawler carrier rentals and purchases, Rig Source strives to make the process as simple as possible. Over the years, we’ve learned that our customers appreciate the benefits associated with renting before buying. Two of the biggest benefits are the ability for customers to familiarize themselves with new equipment and at the same time tryout the crawler carrier they’re considering buying.

    Maybe you’re not too familiar with crawler carrier products or maybe you haven’t seen the full scope of tracked carrier capabilities, but renting before you buy provides you the time and practice to learn. Taking a rental crawler carrier out on the jobsite allows customers to put our rubber tracked carriers to the test to ensure they are meeting all the requirements necessary to later justify their purchase. (more…)